Knee Pain

The knee joint's main function is to bend and straighten for moving the body. The knee is more than just a simple hinge. It also twists and rotates. In order to perform all of these actions and to support the entire body while doing so, the knee relies on a number of structures, including bones, ligaments, tendons, and cartilage.


Bones:
The knee joint involves three bones.
The thighbone or femur comprises the top portion of the joint.
One of the bones in the lower leg (calf area), the tibia, provides the bottom portion of the joint.
The kneecap or patella rides along the front of the femur.
The remaining bone in the calf, the fibula is not directly involved in the knee joint but is close to the outer portion of the joint (sometimes this bone is included in the knee joint and therefore the joint will be described as involving four bones).Ligaments
Ligaments are fibrous bands that connect bones to each other.
The knee includes four important ligaments, all four of which connect the femur to the tibia:
The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) provide front and back (anterior and posterior) and rotational stability to the knee.
The medial collateral ligament (MCL) and lateral collateral ligament (LCL) located along the inner (medial) and outer (lateral) sides of the knee provide medial and lateral stability to the knee.
Tendons:
Tendons are fibrous bands similar to ligaments.
Instead of connecting bones to other bones as ligaments do, tendons connect muscles to bones.
The two important tendons in the knee are the quadriceps tendon connecting the quadriceps muscle, which lies on the front of the thigh, to the patella and  the patellar tendon connecting the patella to the tibia (technically this is a ligament because it connects two bones).
The quadriceps and patellar tendons as well as the patella itself are sometimes called the extensor mechanism, and together with the quadriceps muscle they facilitate leg extension (straightening).
Cartilage :
Cartilaginous structures called menisci (one is a meniscus) line the top of the tibia and lie between the tibia and the two knuckles at the bottom of the femur (the femoral condyles).
Menisci provide both space and cushion for the knee joint.
Bursae:
Bursae (singular is bursa) are fluid-filled sacs that help to cushion the knee. The knee contains three important groups of bursae.
The prepatellar bursa lies in front of the patella.
The anserine bursa is located on the inner side of the knee about 2 inches below the joint.
The infrapatellar bursa is located underneath the patella.

Conditions that may cause knee problems:

Problems not directly related to an injury or overuse may occur in or around the knee.

Excess body weight and weak thigh and hamstring muscles along with weak ligaments and tendons make the knee joint vulnerable.

Osteoarthritis (degenerative joint disease) may cause knee pain that is worse in the morning and improves during the day. It often develops at the site of a previous injury. Other types of arthritis, such as rheumatoid arthritis, gout, and lupus, also can cause knee pain, swelling, and stiffness.Osgood-Schlatter disease causes pain, swelling, and tenderness in the front of the knee below the kneecap. It is especially common in boys ages 11 to 15. A popliteal (or Baker's) cyst causes swelling in the back of the knee. Infection in the skin (cellulitis), joint (infectious arthritis), bone (osteomyelitis), or bursa (septic bursitis) can cause pain and decreased knee movement. A problem elsewhere in the body, such as a pinched nerve or a problem in the hip, can sometimes cause knee pain.Osteochondritis dissecans causes pain and decreased movement when a piece of bone or cartilage or both inside the knee joint loses blood supply and dies.
Overuse injuries occur with repetitive activities or repeated or prolonged pressure on the knee.  Activities such as stair climbing, bicycle riding, jogging  or jumping stress joints and other tissues and can lead to irritation and inflammation.
Injuries are the most common cause of knee problems. Sudden (acute) injuries may be caused by a direct blow to the knee or from abnormal twisting, bending the knee, or falling on the knee. Pain, bruising, or swelling may be severe and develop within minutes of the injury. Nerves or blood vessels may be pinched or damaged during the injury. The knee or lower leg may feel numb, weak, or cold; tingle; or look pale or blue. Knee problems and injuries often occur during sports or recreational activities, work-related tasks, or home projects.
Iliotibial band syndrome and Gastrocnemius muscle trigger points also cause knee pain.

Do not opt for surgery unless you discuss your situation with us.


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